India – a country with one of the most ancient civilizations in the world; country in South Asia. Capital – New Delhi; other major cities – Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore. Democratic Republic was proclaimed in 1950.
Today it is a federal republic and one of the most densely populated countries in the world. With a population of more than 1.2 billion people. It is the second most populous country in the world. According to the administrative division of the country’s 29 states and 7 union territories. Disputed territory – Jammu and Kashmir.
Neighbors at land borders are China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar. Sea borders the country shares with the Maldives and Sri Lanka. The main religion – Hinduism (80%). Also, the spread of Islam in the country (13%), Christianity (2.5%) and some ancient forms of religious and philosophical doctrines. Official languages - English and Hindi. In some states at the national level are used Bengali, Urdu, Tamil and other languages.
India bordering the Indian Ocean. From the east – is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side – the Arabian Sea. The main resorts – Goa and Kerala. The main rivers that supply water various regions of the country, is the Indus, the Ganges and its tributaries. The highest peak – Kanchenjunga (8586 m). This mountain is part of the mountain range of the Himalayas; located on the border of India and Nepal.
The climate in the north – the mountain-subtropical and in the south – closer to the equatorial. The best time to visit is from November to March, in the other months sometimes rainy, sometimes hot and dry. Currency – Indian Rupee.
India attractions. Taj Mahal – one of the most beautiful palaces not only in India but all over the world. The mosque-mausoleum in Agra, dedicated to his beloved wife of Shah Jahan I – Mumtaz Mahal. Due to the architecture, the mausoleum has turned out surprisingly beautiful and organic. If a long look at its white dome, it seems that it seemed to hover in the air.
In fact, this palace is the personification of a beautiful and long-lasting love, which is steeped in legend among the people. On one of them, this romantic story started after Sultan met Mumtaz Mahal in the city market and was so dazzled by her beauty that he offered to become his third wife. According to another version, she was a distant relative on his mother’s side of the ruler, or the daughter of his father’s vizier.
In any case, Shah Jahan was so attached to her that did not leave until her death. Together they lived for about 17 years. She died giving birth of their 14th child. Mumtaz Mahal means “decoration of the palace.” As a sign of his infinite love, he ordered to build a mausoleum for her. He himself was also buried in the Taj Mahal, but much later.
Construction of the palace lasted from 1631 to 1653. Above them worked more than 20 thousand employees, among which were the best calligraphers from Syria and Persia, the Indian master inlay, sculptors from Bukhara, and other specialists. It is said that originally the doors were cast in pure silver, but for so many centuries, the Taj Mahal was not just looted. Despite this, the palace lost its former luster and counted among the most beautiful buildings in the world.
The construction site on the banks of Yamuna River has been chosen with a precise calculation of a long existence. For so many years, no one earthquake has not damaged the palace. The Taj Mahal architecture is visible mixture of Islamic, Indian and Persian architecture, which gives it a special beauty. The height of the main dome is 73 meters. Despite this, the mausoleum seems surprisingly graceful and easy.
Tourists visiting India, certainly go to Agra to see this “pearl” of Islamic architecture, photograph it, and even to visit the inner chambers, where covered in calligraphy are two white marble sarcophagus stored. This is the tomb of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife. Especially spectacular “Crowned Palace” looks in the morning haze of fog, at night. No less picturesque gardens, adjacent to the structure.
Millions of tourists each year come here. Taj Mahal doors are open every day except Fridays and the month of Ramadan. Getting from Delhi to Agra, you can both train and bus. Distance between cities – about 250 km. From Goa is best reached by plane.
Golden Temple in Amritsar
India attractions. Golden Temple in Amritsar – the central temple in the holy city of the Sikhs; main Sikh shrine in India. Amritsar is located near the border with Pakistan in Punjab. Translated name of the city means “the source of the nectar of immortality.”
For Sikhs it is the holy city, the history of which is directly linked to the advent of the Golden Temple and the fourth Guru Ram Das ( “Servant of God”). Today, millions of devotees from all over India come to Amritsar with pilgrims.
This is one of the oldest structures built by the Sikhs. The place for construction of the temple in the “lake of immortality” chose himself Ram Das in 1577. According to him, it can be cleansed from sin rests and touch the divine.
One day he had a wonderful dream – a shimmering golden lights of the temple, like a lotus on the surface of the lake. It is thus he wanted to see the main temple of Amritsar. The architect of the construction was the person of the Muslim faith, which Ram Das told his dream. He was so struck by the beauty of the temple, that it agreed to build.
Golden Temple has turned out an exact copy of the order Ram Das. Despite the fact that over the centuries he had been destroyed and rebuilt a beautiful view of the temple have survived to our time.
On the blue surface of the lake rises the white and gold lotus. If the lower tiers of the temple are covered with marble, gilding the top shrouded. It is accessible by a narrow path. Visiting Temple in Amritsar, it is necessary to cover his head with a handkerchief and take off your shoes.
To reach the holy city may be on the plane, train or bus from Delhi. The first option is preferable, since the flight lasts 1 hour and ground transportation to get 5-6 hours. Amritsar Airport and the city center is separated by only 11 km.
Lotus Temple – an unusual temple complex in the vicinity of Delhi; Center Bahai of religion in India. A distinctive feature of the construction – the absence of any straight lines. In fact, this grand structure in the form of a lotus created 27 marble “petals”.
According to the architectural style it is referred to the direction of structural expressionism and is often compared with the opera house in Sydney. That’s what inspired the original construction of the temple chief architect Fariborz Sahba for the construction of the “lotus”. Geographically, it is located in the capital Delhi District in the village Bahapur. The whole complex covers just over 10 hectares.
It includes not only the main temple, but also the surrounding pools, played an important role in the establishment of ventilation in the building. According to the Bahá’í faith, the temple can be visited by people of all faiths. They have special benches and all kinds of decorations inside the church, such as altars, pulpits, sculptures, sacred images are missing, according to the traditions of the monotheistic religions.
Construction of the temple lasted from 1978 to 1986. For facing Pentelic marble was used. The total height of the building – 34 meters; hall capacity – 2,500 people. This temple is considered one of the most visited shrines in the capital of India.
Hawa Mahal – attraction of Jaipur, India. Classical Indian palace in five tiers, built in the late 18th century for the harem of the Maharaja. Outwardly, it looks like a crown adorning Lord Krishna’s head. This building looks so unusual that many compare it with a fancy cake with bee honeycomb or lace.
Translated from the local dialect is “Palace of Winds”, which is due to the unusual architecture of the palace, which from the very beginning of its existence is literally the wind howled. For hot Rajasthan it was just what we needed. Through the windows, and countless niches in the walls of the palace, placed in several rows, as well as inner tubes, a complex ventilation system was established in the palace, to constantly maintain a cool indoors. The building has more than 900 windows, which is why it is often compared to an anthill.
Inside are many small small rooms and a complete lack of stairs. The rooms on different floors are linked together by gentle climbs. The facade is replete with balconies with carved designs that look especially picturesque. By the way, the palace was built on the initiative of Sawai Pratap Singh – Maharajah of Jaipur, who liked to be here with all his large family, or rather the harem.
Subsequently, Hawa Mahal has become a favorite place for the wives of Indian princes, as for the elegant bars of the palace was easy to hide his face, which, according to tradition ought to hide from prying eyes. So, undetected, great ladies could watch the life outside the palace. And tourists can now climb to the upper levels of the buildings of pink sandstone and watch the bustle of Jaipur.
To get to the palace will not be difficult, since it is located in the heart of the metropolis. Until Jaipur from Delhi sent planes, trains and buses. The flight lasts about an hour, and the land route takes about 4-5 hours. The palace is open to visitors daily from 9 o’clock in the morning.
Jal Mahal – a real mirage in the scorching desert; “Floating” palace in India. Located in the middle of Man Sagar artificial reservoir near the city of Jaipur. No less famous are other historical buildings of the city, but perhaps the most unusual of them is Jal Mahal ( “Water Palace”).
In dry weather, the palace walls laid bare, as the water in the lake is decreasing. However, tourists love to visit here is during the monsoon season. In Lake Jal Mahal looks particularly elegant. It was built in the mid 18th century as a summer residence of Indian rulers.
Initially palace was located in the beautiful green valley.
The architecture of the palace there is a mixture of Indian and Islamic styles. As part of the tour you can swim up to the boat and admire all this splendor on the outside. At times the water comes up to the first four floors of the building. For a long time the palace was abandoned and clogged with all sorts of waste, but recently the Indian authorities took up the cleaning of Jal Mahal and Man Sagar Lake.
Minaret of Qutub Minar
The minaret of Qutub Minar – the tallest brick tower in the world; element of the Indo-Islamic architectural complex Qutub Minar (or Qutub Minar) in Delhi, India. This unique minaret at 72.6 m is also called “Tower of Victory”, as it has built the first Muslim ruler of India to surpass the Minaret of Jam.
Qutb al-Din Aibak, the first sultan of the Sultanate of Delhi, ordered to demolish 27 temples for construction of minarets. Construction work began in the late 12th century, but the life of the ruler was able to build only the base of a giant tower with a diameter of almost 15 m. At the height of diameter narrowed.
The fifth and final stage was erected in the mid-14th century, the sultans of Turkic origin.
Thus, the first mosque minaret Delhi was under construction for almost 200 years and is planning various architects. For this reason, in the architecture tiers view different style.
In addition to the minaret in the ensemble have dilapidated today a mosque, another minaret, which was to surpass the Qutub Minar, but remained a height of 24.5 m, an impressive gate, the tomb of a Sufi saint and the famous iron pillar.
Qutub Minar is located on the outskirts of the city. Therefore, many prefer to get to the complex by taxi. Its entrance is paid, but the photo and video are free.
Stupa in Sanchi village
Stupa in Sanchi village – one of the iconic sights of India; the prototype of all later stupas in Buddhism. Erected in the III century BC during the reign of Ashoka the Great. At his insistence, the walls were painted with images, not only of Buddhist mythology and the ancient Greeks.
Geographically, it is in the 40-50 km away from Bhopal and get to her best on the tour bus, rental car or taxi. In the II century BC Stupa was slightly rebuilt. Next to it were the stone gate Tora and 40-ton column. Gates resemble wooden architecture, as are decorated with exquisite carvings.
On the territory of Sanchi there are many other ancient structures. One of the most revered temple is 17, built in the V century BC Sanchi long time remained an important center of Buddhist art, but with the accession of Islam went into decline. Re-discovered the village and the British restored in 1818. Today it is a hemispherical building serves as a memorial monument in the Buddhist architecture.
Chattarpur temple complex
Chattarpur temple complex – one of the largest religious centers in India and the biggest temple complex in the metropolitan area. Built in the XX century in Delhi at the insistence of Baba San Nagpala and dedicated to the goddess Katyayani. Annually complex visited by millions of Hindus and tourists came to India.
Chattarpur open to representatives of any religion, but the central church opens its doors only twice a year during the Navaratri celebrations, lasting 9 days and nights. The complex has a huge number of schools, ashrams, treatment centers. There are a number of shrines dedicated to deities such as Shiva, Ganesha, Rama.
Chattarpur Geographically situated in south-west Delhi, just 4 km from the minaret of Qutub Minar. The total aggregate complex covers 24 hectares of land. At the main entrance stands a unique tree, which is decorated with the filament Visitors bracelets, incidentally desire. In the temples Chattarpur always crowded. People come not only to pray, but just talk.
Entrance to the complex is free. Fans of sculptures will be pleasantly surprised by the unprecedented number of huge monuments. Some of them are dedicated to the deities, and some – the people’s favorite animal. Striking colossal dimensions statue dedicated to the monkey king – God Hanuman. No less majestic look statues of elephants and tigers in the temple garden.
Red Fort of Agra
Red Fort of Agra – one of the most important architectural masterpieces of the capital of the Mughals in India. Along with the Taj Mahal, perfectly reflects the idea of life in Agra in the old days. This victorious military fortress is more like a luxurious royal palace, built of red sandstone. Any visitor is sure to Agra visiting Red Fort.
The construction was built as the main residence of the emperors. The need for such a fort there in the early 16th century, when the capital was moved to the Mughal in Agra. The construction of this magnificent fortress lasted a little more than five years. Externally, the ensemble resembles an elongated along the river Yamuna crescent. In contrast to the reddish outer walls, inside you can see the snow-white mosque and palace rooms. Part of the complex is not accessible to visitors.
Facts in figures say that the height of the walls of the Red Fort reaches 20-21 m. In order to defense the Mughals could go on a lot. The outer wall is provided with a double and four gates. One of the most beautiful palaces of the walls called Jahangir Mahal. It resembles a stone ball, entirely decorated in the Persian style. Not inferior to him in a graceful Shish Mahal, famous for its mirror mosaics. Well, the most famous of the palaces of India, the magnificent Taj Mahal, located just a few kilometers from the Red Fort.
To get to the “Treasures of Agra” can be on a special express train from Delhi, which departs every morning from New Delhi Station. By train route takes 2 hours. If you go by bus, the path will take about 3 hours. From Goa to attractions are best reached by plane.
The ruins of Hampi
The ruins of Hampi – a village in Karnataka in the south-west of India, where the ruins of Vijayanagara Empire. There is an important Hindu temple Virupaksha, dedicated to Shiva. The ruins of Hampi to Goa are particularly popular with tourists as the capital of the Indian resort is easiest to get to Vijayanagar.
From Goa to the destination about 350 km. On the bus trip takes at least 7-8 hours. Apart from the usual tourist routes it is possible to get to the train in the morning, arriving in Hospet only in the evening. From the city to the ruins of Hampi another 15 km. We’ll have to spend the night in one of the local hotels, but it’s a good idea to get acquainted with the true Indian flavor.
In the vicinity of the ruins of the ancient city not just have to use the services of rickshaws who know exactly at what trajectory of the main attractions of the village. The main thing is to agree in advance on a price for a day, not an hour. The most interesting objects are Vital Temple with the famous Stone Chariot, Hanuman Temple with 630 steps, he Virupaksha temple complex, the figure of Narasimha. Early in the morning on the ruins of many monkeys, but to touch them it is not recommended, and can only feed a banana.
If you look closely, you will notice that around Hampi layering of several civilizations. Huge granite boulders scattered throughout the complex, sometimes intricate form a pyramid. It should go at least once on such stones to understand what they are stale from the VII century. Hampi Landmarks no less picturesque. Here you can see the mountain of Matanga, in the sacred river Tungabhadra locals bathe and wash clothes.
In general, in the village a lot of snack bars, restaurants for hungry tourists, but the meat dishes they did not find. Before the trip should thoroughly prepare – to bring along enough water, comfortable shoes and a hat to protect from the sun.