Peru – a country in South America with a rich history, architectural heritage and extraordinary biodiversity. By area, it is the third country on the continent. In the west of the country bordering the Pacific Ocean. The capital of the state – Lima.
The highest peak of the Andes in the country – it was Huascaran. The largest freshwater lake in the continent is located on the border with Bolivia.
Official language – Spanish, but the indigenous people use and like some dialects of Quechua. In order to travel even used English. The vast majority of Catholics. The currency in use – Peruvian salt.
The climate in the region is quite diverse because of the difficult terrain. The entire territory of Peru is divided into the highlands of the Andes, the coastal desert and the plains of the Amazon Basin. In mountainous areas the climate is temperate; the coastal strip of low humidity. Where the starting zone with a pronounced mountainous terrain, the winter is cold, and on the tops of the year is snow.
According to the state system, Peru today is a presidential republic, although until 1821 was a colony of Spain. The history of this ancient country rooted in the distant X millennium BC From Inca civilization left a rich architectural heritage.
The most populous region – is Lima. After him are La Libertad and Arequipa. The total population of the country – nearly 30.5 million people.
The ruins of Ollantaytambo
The ruins of Ollantaytambo – a city built by the Incas along the slopes of the mountains at the junction of the sacred rivers Urabambu and Patakancha. Located in Peru, about 60-80 km from the city of Cusco, at an altitude of 2792 m. Externally, these ruins make a lasting impression, as the whole town was built on the hillside.
Before the invasion of the Spanish conquest Pachacuti, the ninth ruler of the Inca Empire, founded a completely new city with a large-scale settlement and ceremonial center. Under his new irrigation systems have been established. In the construction used stones and unpolished tightly fitted together blocks of stone. A special place in the city held the ruler of the palace.
It is the ruins of the palace, as well as other iconic Inca structures survived and attract more and more tourists from all over the world. It is noteworthy that the ancient Incas were able as anyone to use agricultural techniques, using all the advantages of the different ecological zones on the slopes of the mountain.
These ruins have attracted the attention of Western scientists and archaeologists only in the 19th century. Today, they are part of any excursion program, passing through the famous “Road of the Incas.” As a rule, occupy excursions 3-4 days. By the way such an exotic name like Ollantaytambo from the local dialect means “pantry of my God.”
The ancient city of Cuzco
Peru attractions. The ancient city of Cuzco – a city in the southwest of Peru with a rich history. For 200 years it remained the capital of the ancient Incas, and the first traces of human indicate people living in Cusco more than 3,000 years ago. According to the Inca ideology of their empire was divided into four quarters, and Cuzco was the central element, the so-called “navel of the earth.” So translated name of the city from the Quechua language.
He has a high-rise location (more than 3000 m above sea level), so that people unaccustomed to it on the first day must undergo acclimatization. Do newcomers can become more frequent pulse, dizzy. Therefore, at the airport of their otpaivat special soothing tea. The best way to get to the attractions is, of course, a flight from Lima, which lasts only 1 hour. In the city has an international airport. If you go by bus, travel time is 24 hours, but the road is through a picturesque plateau with geoglyphs (curly patterns caused by people on the ground).
As for the education of the locals there are many legends. On one of them he founded the Inca leader, who once lived on the shores of Lake Titicaca. His name was Manco Capac. He and his family sought refuge in places where the ground could enter the “golden rod” and found it here, calling the population of Cuzco, ie “Center of the earth.” Repeatedly the city was founded in 1533 by the Spanish conquistador Pizarro FA. Today, this ancient city is the main goal of all travelers traveling in Peru, as through it is the way to all the major values of the country – the Sacred Valley of the Inca, Inca Trail, Machu Picchu and others.
In Cusco, you can spend the whole day, but did not have time to explore all the attractions. There is a number of museums, ancient churches, the famous Sacsayhuaman, made of blocks of stone ideal. There is also a statue of Christ with outstretched arms, a similar statue in Rio de Janeiro. In the Museum of the Inca can be found from the settlement history and archaeological finds relating to preinkskoy civilization. The central market of San Pedro locals peddling traditional Peruvian food, fresh fruit and knitted things alpaca. It is best to plan a trip to Cusco from April to September.
The ruins of the city of Chan Chan
The ruins of the city of Chan Chan – the ruins of the capital of pre-Columbian Indian state on the territory of Peru. Located in the region of La Libertad, near the Pacific coast. At its peak, namely around 1300, Chan Chan was the largest settlement on the continent, built of adobe. Today its ruins are striking and original forms of the ideal layout.
The nearest settlement – the city of Trujillo and the popular resort of Huanchaco. Due to the fact that Chan Chan ruins consist of four units located in different parts, examine all one day will be difficult, but a ticket to the archaeological complex of single. From both cities towards the ruins or follow the tourist buses. Presumably there were more than 50 thousand people in Chan Chan, which indicates a large scale Chimu culture.
The main town values were precious stones, gold, silver and ceramics. This Pacific civilization to colonize Peru before the Spanish conquest and was quite highly. Among the ruins of the complex hydraulic engineering constructions were discovered, workshops, barracks.
The walls are decorated with local residents geometric figures or zoomorphic ornaments. Destruction of civilization does not come with the arrival of the Incas, and the beginning of the Spanish colonization. Today, the complex preserved many churches and religious areas with houses.
Cathedral of San Francisco in Lima
Cathedral of San Francisco in Lima – most visited religious complex in Lima, Peru. The history of the cathedral is inextricably linked with the history of the capital base. It is located in the cultural and historical center of the city and the famous catacombs developed chain. It is said that the underground catacombs of the cathedral of San Francisco connecting it with other significant buildings in Lima.
Initially, the site of the cathedral was a small chapel, around which has grown a massive complex. Construction of the Franciscan cathedral in the 16th century, but was soon destroyed by the earthquake, so the temple was rebuilt in 1672 again.
Outwardly, it looks like a good example of neoclassicism bright yellow color with carved reliefs and statues of saints. On the walls you can see scenes from the life of the patron saint of nurses.
The main value of the cathedral is a huge library, which stores hundreds of thousands of ancient manuscripts. Well, in the catacombs, more than 30 thousand graves, since before the 19th century, it housed the city cemetery. Some burial creepy stacked in geometric patterns, so it’s not a sight for the faint of heart. The architectural complex includes not only the main church buildings, but also a religious museum.