Italy – a country in the Mediterranean, occupying the peninsula and a small part of the Balkan. Also, refer to the Italian island of Sardinia, Sicily, and a number of small islands. The capital – Rome. It shares borders with Switzerland, France, Slovenia and Austria. Domestically, there are two independent states – Vatican City and San Marino.
According to the administrative division of Italy 20 regions, 5 of which have special status. These include Sicily with Sardinia. The population of the country – more than 61 million people.. The largest river – the Po; The highest point – Mount Blanc. In Italy there are several active volcanoes. Most major cities – Milan, Turin, Venice, Palermo, Naples, Florence, Genoa.
More than 100 thousand years ago, the peninsula was inhabited by Paleolithic people. In the II millennium BC it settled Aryan tribes, among which are a tribe of Latins. That they built in the VIII century BC Rome. All subsequent history of the country has been associated with this small city-state. The heyday of Rome took place in the II century, when its territory stretched from England to the Caucasus.
The climate in Italy mostly subtropical, Mediterranean. Official language – Italian. Approximately 98% of the population are Roman Catholic. The Head of State is the President. Political system – parliamentary republic. Official currency – Euro (prior to this was the Italian lira).
Giotto bell tower
Italy Sights. Giotto bell tower – one of the main attractions of Florence, Italy and the historical monument of world importance. This majestic bell tower is part of the architectural ensemble of the cathedral, the Duomo.
Geographically, the bell tower, or as they say the Italians, Campania is located in the heart of the city on Cathedral Square. The bell tower is one of the four main buildings area, and certainly the highest. In contrast to the neighboring buildings, which are designed in the style of Gothic architecture, Giotto’s Campanile is the best example of Italian trecento with mixing styles.
One of the authors of the construction was the great Italian master and chief architect – Giotto di Bondone. It is in honor of him and it was decided to call the tower. For its construction took decades. The foundation was laid in 1298, and the official date of completion is considered to be in 1359.
Varied architects, and changed the style of construction. The base of the sculpture – the result of the best sculptors of the Renaissance, the second tier is entirely lined by Giotto plan, the third tier is decorated with statues, some of which are carried out by Donatello himself. The whole tower is faced with three types of marble: white, green and pink. The height of the structures was about 85 meters, and not 122 as the planning chief architect.
Despite this, with the height of the Campanile offers excellent views of all of Florence and its surroundings. In order to climb to the observation deck of the sights, you need to overcome more than 400 stairs. Giotto bell tower is open to visitors daily from 8.30 am. To get to the Cathedral Square is the metro – station Duomo.
Column of Trajan
Column of Trajan – majestic columns in Rome, capital of Italy, reminiscent of past victories and the glory of the Romans. Column stands proudly over the ruins of the Roman Forum, while at its base is the tomb of Emperor Trajan Ulpia and his wife. This triumphal structure was erected in honor of the emperor and his victories over the Dacians.
The column was erected in Rome in the II century BC The architect of the construction was honored by the Emperor Apollodorus of Damascus. For its construction were brought to 20 blocks of Carrara marble. Today the tower height is 38 meters, and weight – 40 tons. Inside the hollow column. It is only a spiral staircase leading to the area.
Monument to capitals changed several times. First, there stood a sculpture of an eagle, then of Trajan, and only in the XVI century there was a statue of the Apostle Peter, which adorns a column to this day. On relief ribbon running along the trunk of the column you can see fragments of the two battles of the Emperor Trajan with the Dacians. Total 2500 depicted human figures, including the emperor himself repeated many times.
In addition to the relief you can see the goddess of victory Nike, grand old man of the Danube and other allegorical characters. Located in the Landmark Forum of Trajan, near Piazza Venezia and the famous Vittoriano complex.
Statue of a she-wolf suckled Romulus and Remus
Statue of a she-wolf suckled Romulus and Remus – the most famous sculpture in Rome, capital of Italy, connected with its base. Or else it is called the Capitoline she-wolf. The statue is made of bronze, the value of a real wolf, which feeds the milk of two babies – Romula and Rema. They are the founders of Rome, according to legend.
It is not known when and who created the statue, as the opinions of scholars on this subject diverge. Some believe that the statue is of Etruscan origin, as the wolf was totem of this nation. Others agree that a similar statue has been mentioned since antiquity and was portrayed on Roman coins. Also, there is a perception that a statue of bronze did not know how to sculpt 8-10 centuries AD The sculpture is credited with the famous Florentine master Antonio del Pollaiolo.
In any case, today, this one-piece bronze sculpture height of 75 cm is in the Capitoline Museum, and is considered to be his most valuable exhibit. A copy of the statue of the she-wolf is a bit smaller at the corner of Capitol Square under the walls of the Palace of the Senators. Access to both the Capitoline Museum, and to the area can be on the subway, reaching the Colosseo station.
According to legend, the brothers Romulus and Remus were born from the Vestal Rhea Silvia, which at the insistence of the formidable father and brother made a vow of celibacy. Her brother Amulius, not wanting to see the family still other heirs, ordered to throw the twins into the river. There they are washed ashore and they have grown, reared wolf. In fact, the version of the appearance of the founders of Rome a lot and this is just one of them.
Fountain of the Four Rivers
Fountain of the Four Rivers – one of the most beautiful fountains in Italy; second in beauty and grandeur of a fountain in Rome, immediately after the Trevi. In its intricacy and complexity of the structure he has no analogues in the country.
This architectural masterpiece was created in the mid-17th century on the orders of Pope Innocent X of the Pamphili kind. Fountain should build next to his ancestral palace, and with all the relying pomp. At one time, for the construction of the attractions people had to pay twice as much for bread.
The central element of the sculpture become the obelisk symbolizing papal authority. The main architect of the great Bernini fountain played, and a giant statue at the base were made by his students. They symbolize the rivers of four continents (Africa, America, Europe, Asia). Each statue supplemented with symbolic objects, typical of these continents.
Geographically located on the landmark Piazza Navona. You can reach it from many of the central metro stations, including Barberini, Spagna, Cavour. From Colosseo station to the fountain follows the bus number 87, and from the station Termini – bus number 70. This fountain favorite local musicians, artists and street performers.
Spanish Steps – the most beautiful staircase in Europe; one of the must-visit sights in Rome, capital of Italy. This baroque staircase is impressive for its size and architectural magnificence of almost every tourist who visited the “city on seven hills.”
The staircase was built of traditional Roman travertine in the first half of the XVIII century at the foot of the Spanish Square. In fact, it leads from the square to the top of the hill Pincio, but it needs to overcome the 138 steps. In the area of Spain, there is another attraction – the fountain in the form of a boat “Barcaccia”.
With this area of Rome is related to many famous persons and houses. For example, near the Spanish Steps is the house in which lived out his days the famous English poet John Keats. To the left of the stairs is one of the oldest English tea called Babington’s. Many famous fashion houses in the area have placed their branded boutiques. Among them, Prada, Dolce & Gabbana, Dior.
Every summer at the Spanish Steps is held a grand fashion show featuring the best designer in the world. Spring blooming azaleas on the stairs, and in the winter the tourists and the locals admiring the Christmas scenes, arranged on the stairs. From the height of the ladder with beautiful views of the city at any time of the year.
The sculptural decoration of the stairs there are heraldic lilies of the Bourbons in conjunction with symbols of papal authority – an eagle and a crown. At the Spanish Steps is always crowded, so it is a popular place not only tourists, but also young people of Rome. Closest to the underground attractions – Spagna.
Italy Sights. Castel Sant’Angelo – a powerful fortress in the center of Rome, capital of Italy, the former once the mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian, a royal castle, residence of the Pope, a prison and storage of jewelry. Today, Castel Sant’Angelo is an architectural monument and museum.
The history of the castle began in the II century, when on a square base mausoleum for the royal family has been erected. Externally the tomb resembled a cylinder, topped with artificial hill. At the very top of buildings adorned quadriga sculpture under the control of the emperor.
For many decades in the mausoleum preserved funerary urns of the state governors. It was not until as long as Aurelian had built around the buildings walls. After that, the castle was used as a military shelter. The name of the castle came through the archangel Michael, who catch a glimpse of the Pope during an epidemic of plague rampant. After his coming epidemic ceased. Hence the name of Sant-Angelo, that is “the holy angel.”
In the Middle Ages the castle was connected with the Vatican secret passage. It was the safest place during the siege of Rome. In the XVI century the castle was made a famous sculptor and painter Benvenuto Cellini. Later, he managed to escape. So he became the only man in the history of the prison Sant’Angelo, who managed to escape.
Undoubtedly, the structure changed and rebuilt for so many centuries of its existence. The spiral gallery, leading to the mausoleum, appeared under Hadrian. In the Middle Ages there was an Angel Yard with a marble statue in the center. In the XVII century, many rooms were rebuilt. In the castle there is the papal apartments and balconies. Separately housed prison, a library, a secret archive and treasure room.
The architectural ensemble of the castle falls and magnificent eponymous bridge. It is a pedestrian bridge leading across the Tiber River. His appearance also dates from the II century, but the current building, lined with marble slabs, appeared around the XVI century. The castle is open to visitors daily from 9 o’clock in the morning. Closest to the underground attractions – Ottaviano.