Mexico – a country on the southern tip of the North American continent. Capital – Mexico City (8.8 million people..) Other major cities – Guadalajara, Monterrey. The structure of the state has a number of islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
In fact, Mexico connects the United States with South America. Thus, the land border in the north connects with the United States, and in the south – with Belize and Guatemala. US border runs along the river. Rio Grande.
Tourist centers on the Pacific coast is the port city of Acapulco. Famous resorts on the Caribbean coast – Cancun and Riviera Maya.
Due to favorable climatic conditions, the bright sun and the beautiful sea all year round in Mexico. In the north, mostly subtropical climate and in the south – tropical. In this country it is customary to divide the seasons on the dry and wet (rainy). The first lasts from November to April, and the second – from the beginning of the summer until September.
In Mexico 40 extinct volcanoes. The terrain is extremely varied. There are both lowland and highland areas. Tropical forests and snowy peaks is also not uncommon. Most of the country is occupied by the Mexican highlands. The highest peak – Orizaba (5700 m).
Official language – Spanish, but at a conversational level also popular dialects of the local ethnic groups. According to recent data, the total population – about 121.7 million people.. More than 76% of Catholics. Almost 1/3 of the population are representatives of Indian tribes. According to the state apparatus, Mexico – presidential republic. The country is widely spoken English.
The national currency is the Mexican (or new) pesos.
The ancient city of Tulum
The ancient city of Tulum – one of the ancient cities of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico; Beautiful area on the Caribbean coast. It is believed that Tulum served as an outpost of the coastal defense of the Mayan civilization. He was the only one located on the beach. In Tulum many religious buildings.
Today, there are three items with the name of Tulum. It is a modern city located a few kilometers from the ruins themselves. This resort area along the coast that stretches to the Sian Ka’an reserve. And last, but the most popular item – it yourself ruins, located on the shores of one of the most beautiful Mexican beaches.
The town of Tulum is perfectly preserved for the arrival of the Spanish conquerors. By the 10th century AD this civilization was already in its decline, but the Spaniards caught this small outpost of the population. Just outpost was about 600 people. They have long performed their religious rituals and prayed to the gods in the local temples.
The highest and most visited temple here is the El Castillo. It is believed that this historical and archaeological site served as a beacon, as it is located closest to the Caribbean. Generally Mayan Indians skillfully used the glare of the sun for the exchange of information. For example, they knew exactly when and how the sun reflected from the pyramids, built in the hills. Accordingly, they can apply certain signs in other cities. The same principle of using sunlight existed in the ancient city of Chichen Itza.
Its modern name of Tulum was in the 19th century. It represents nothing less than a “walled”. And in the days of the Mayan civilization, the city was called itself (Zama), meaning “city of dawn”. Getting to your destination by bus or shuttle bus from Cancun. From the city to the archaeological site can be reached by taxi or rent a bike.
The natural well cenote Ikil
The natural well cenote Ikil – one of the most visited places in Mexico; natural body of water intended for public bathing. Once, during the existence of the Mayan civilization, the wells had a different purpose. Firstly, they are used as a source of fresh water; secondly, they were conductors the other world..
Today in the area, in particular the well Ikil (in the lane. “A place where the wind is born), is always crowded. People come to this natural lake to hide from the heat, to enjoy the natural surroundings and just dive with stairs in one of the deepest natural sources of Yucatan.
Usually, a visit to this well combined with a trip to Chichen Itza. Well located only 5 km from the entrance to the archaeological complex. From Chichen Itza to the Ik-Kiel are regular taxis, the so-called “collectives.” The ride is about 5-10 minutes. From Valladolid to the side of the well and follow the bus.
The water in the well is never colder than + 22-25 ° C, so it is very comfortable to swim. Cenote depth of about 50 m, so brave freely dive into it with your head. In Ikil variety of fishes are found, but they did not seem to notice the presence of swimmers and did not shy away from them.
Perhaps the most picturesque part of the Ik-Kiel – is hanging over a bottomless chasm branches of trees and vines. The height of the surrounding walls – about 25 meters. The water is always clean and painted in sky blue color due to the presence of limestone and a special type of plankton. According to different levels of the staircase leading to the Cenote, arranged a viewing platform.
Mexico Attractions. Teotihuacan Pyramids – one of the most visited attractions in Mexico; Pyramid of the oldest and largest cities. Teotihuacan is also called the “city of the gods” or “ghost town.” It is believed that it was inhabited from the II century BC unknown tribes. Then there were the first religious buildings.
Today, the main asset of Teotihuacan are two large pyramids dedicated to the sun and the moon. Among the other buildings are preserved Temple of the rain god, the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, and others.
According to various estimates, in the heyday of Teotihuacan lived in no less than 200 thousand people. For some reason, people have left the city is unknown, but we know that from the 2nd century AD Regional Center located here. By careful planning were set up entire city blocks, dotted with adobe dwellings.
The centerpiece of the ancient civilization has always served the god Quetzalcoatl, also known as the “Plumed Serpent”. Almost every found in archaeological excavations the ancient city of Mexico there are temples dedicated to this god. Teotiuakan, in this sense, is not an exception.
Temple of the Feathered Serpent rises in the midst of a vast Citadel, where supposedly lived the supreme ruler of the city. The first excavations in the region began in the 17th century and were concentrated around the famous Pyramid of the Sun. This particular structure built in about 150 BC The height of 64 m, it is considered the 3rd pyramid-largest in the world.
The second largest structure in the territory of Teotihuacan is the Pyramid of the Moon, in which human and animal remains were found. The temple is located on top of the pyramid, presumably built for ritual ceremonies. The Museum of Teotihuacan kept a large number of artifacts found during excavations.
To get to this mysterious city by bus from Mexico City for 1 hour. Buses leave from the Northern Bus Terminal (Terminal Norte) every 15 minutes. In order to arrive exactly to the pyramids, but not in the neighboring San Juan Teotihuacan, before planting need to check with the driver if the bus makes a stop at Los Pirámides.
Popocatepetl volcano – an active volcano in Mexico; the second highest mountain in the country. Located in the National Park Ista Popo an hour’s drive from Mexico City and attracts large number of tourists. With this volcano is related an interesting legend. Translated from the local dialect of his unusual name is translated as “a smoking mound.”
From time to time Popocatepetl spews smoke and powerful mud flows melted ice. In those days, local people say that he was “angry” and rightly so. Next to this is another mountain top, the third-largest in Mexico. This mountain Iztaccihuatl. The ancient Aztecs worshiped these two mountains and worship them like gods. The height of the peaks, Popocatepetl – 5426 m, Iztaccihuatl – 5230 m.
According to legend, a great Iztaccihuatl was once a bride brave warrior named Popocatepetl. Wicked men tricked Iztaccihuatl, saying that her fiance died in the war, and she married another man she did not love her. When Popocatepetl returned from the war and learned the news, the two lovers committed suicide. Therefore Popocatepetl often “angry”, spewing lava formation.
Therefore, before you go to Ista Popo National Park you need to ask in advance how long ago occurred the last eruption. Over the past five centuries, there was at least 20 large eruptions. Getting to the park is best on the shuttle or tour bus from Mexico City. Best time to visit – it is spring or autumn. In summer there is rainy. The foothills of the volcano is covered with greenery and looked very picturesque.
The ruins of the city of Palenque
The ruins of the city of Palenque – the largest collection of ancient buildings of the Mayan civilization in the north-east of the state Chapyas in Mexico. Archaeological complex in the total is about 15 km². The main part of the buildings was built between II and VII centuries. BC, just during the flowering of civilization.
The town was abandoned after 900 years. Due to the high level of rainfall the whole area is overgrown with jungle and up to the middle of the XVIII century has been hidden from the eyes. In 1746 the Spaniards discovered Palenque. They came up with a name settlement, though the Maya themselves called him lacquers-Ha, which translated means “big water”. Currently open to visit only a small part of the complex; 90% of the ancient city is still under the impenetrable jungle.
Among the extant buildings distinguish the ruins of the main palace and several religious temples: Temple of the Sun, the Temple of the Cross, Temple of the Inscriptions. The latter has been carefully studied by scientists, as it kept the sarcophagus de facto ruler of the city and only Baakulskogo kingdom. His name was Pacal, and for the relatives and the subjects he was “shining sword.” It was during the reign of Pakal were erected these royal temples and pyramids.
Palenque is a 2.5-hour drive from the international airport Villaermoza. From the capital of the region is quite far – about a 15 hour drive. From contemporary to the ruins of Palenque are regular taxis. The Archaeological Museum is open on site.
Pyramid of the Moon
Pyramid of the Moon – the second largest attendance and pyramids of ancient Teotihuacan in Mexico. Built later Pyramid of the Sun, with about 250 400 years. n. e.
Along with these two famous pyramids of Teotihuacan in the territory is, at least ten more pyramids and ancient palaces and a citadel. The city itself is in the peak of its development was bigger than many European cities.
Scientists this pyramid is associated with the kingdom of the dead, as during archaeological excavations in it numerous remains and graves were found. Outwardly, this classic Aztec pyramid with a flat top, 42 meters high, consisting of five tiers.
To top facilities staircase which is an extension of dead roads. It stretches from the temple of the supreme deity of the Aztecs. The width of the path – 40 meters, length – nearly 5 km. Flat space on top was allegedly intended for ritual.
Around the 7th century BC the city was completely abandoned. There is still no reliable information, it declined for whatever reason civilization. To get to the attractions is a 1 hour from Mexico City. Buses depart in the direction of the pyramids from the North Bus Station.