China – a vast country in Eastern Asia. In terms of population it takes 1st place in the world and 3rd on the occupied area. The capital – Beijing, is the largest city – Shanghai. It shares borders with Russia, Kazakhstan, India and a number of smaller Asian countries. According to the latest population -. About 1 billion 341 million people.
Eastern borders are washed to several seas. More than 3500 large and small islands are part of China. The national currency is the yuan, and the state language – Chinese. The Head of State is the President of China.
Many people in China practice Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. In this country, it is the largest monument of architecture – the Great Wall of China.
China has an ancient history. Even 9000 years ago, the Paleolithic tribes living in its territory. In the XVI century BC Yin was formed state, which eventually became the property of Zhou tribe. But this short-lived empire. Are replaced by the Qin Dynasty, Han, Sui. In the III century BC The Great Wall was built, to protect the great independent empire.
China – a country with a fairly extended a huge number of natural, cultural and historical attractions. Here you can see the Terracotta Army and the Forbidden City.
Forbidden City Gugong
Forbidden City Gugong – one of China’s iconic landmarks; the largest palace complex in the world. Located in central Beijing. From this residence of 24 emperors ruled the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Once access to the National Palace was open only to members of the imperial family and the people close to them, and the common people strongly I take risks trying to get into it. Each dared to pass through the gates of “the city” and threatened a slow painful death. This mode is in the “former palace” has been set, primarily for security reasons.
Forbidden City Gugong is considered not only the most extensive, but the most famous palace complex in the world. The historical name of the complex – Tszytszinchen, meaning “Forbidden City”. In its construction involved more than 1 million 100 thousand workers and other artists (painters, wood carvers, etc.) Today, nearly 7 million tourists a year are in the walls of the Forbidden City.
First of all, interest is the rich history of the former residence of the emperors. Well, and secondly, the architecture of the complex impresses even the most avid travelers. The city more than 8 thousand rooms. Although there are rumors that their number is equal to 9999, but this is due to the Chinese love to number 9.
The complex is surrounded by a “golden water”, or rather a water moat the length of 3400 m. Sign it can be from the central area of Beijing through the “Gate of Heavenly Peace” (Chentyanmen). Construction of the palace complex belongs to the XV century, that is, to the reign of Zhu Di. Beijing has been chosen by chance. Place of residence for the emperor has been calculated by astronomers as the center of the globe. By the way, Zhu Di moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing.
The Forbidden City was built with the conventional division into two parts: external and internal. In the first emperor had to carry out their public functions, ie work. In the second to live, play, and pray for the emperor and his family members, including concubines, princes and princesses. According to legend, the Qing dynasty had to fall because of a woman.
So it happened in the first half of the XX century, when Empress Cixi took patronage over the 2-hletny Pu Yi. It was the last ruler of the dynasty. A few years later he renounced the throne. In 1924, the former imperial art collection became the property of the Republic. On the basis of this incredible in scale meeting was opened the National Palace Museum.
The Treasuries had more than 1 million artifacts. Some of the exhibits had been evacuated during the war with Japan, and then returned back. The museum collection of the Forbidden City since only replenished. The ceramics gallery you can learn the history of the emergence and development of Chinese porcelain.
The gallery of painting and calligraphy are available with a refined technique of painting on silk. Well, in the Gallery of the treasuries of emperors kept jewelry made of gold, silver, bronze, jade. But striking is not the number, and fine work of Chinese jewelers. Against the backdrop of the Forbidden City was filmed the famous movie “The Last Emperor” (1987)
Temple of Heaven
China Attractions. Temple of Heaven – the largest historical monument in China; majestic complex in central Beijing. Chinese name – Tiantan. Sometimes it is also called the Harvest Temple. The total area of the temple complex – 267 hectares. It is located just south of the Forbidden City and the Emperor symbolizes the connection with heaven.
The complex was built in the first half of the 15th century on the initiative of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty. Since the foundation of the temple, he served as a place for access to heaven through prayer. Prayers were mostly requests to send down rain to issue a bountiful harvest. For the sake of the heavenly lord, he is the emperor, he was ready to bring lavish gifts.
Today, with the Altar to Heaven may contact anyone. Then, having done the way in the 360 meters, you can walk up to the temple, which, by the way, today is the only round church in the capital. The rounded shape has been chosen by chance. After all, the ancient Chinese believed that the sky is round and the earth, in turn, is a square. The roof of blue tiles also symbolic.
Of great importance in the construction of the complex was given to the park surrounding the temple, which used to be able to enter only the imperial family. Today can come here by anyone. The industrious Chinese people in the park like to do different kinds of martial arts in the early morning. The park is open daily from 6 am, and the temple – from 8.00. The nearest metro station to the attractions – Tiantandongmen.
Leshan Giant Buddha
China Attractions. Leshan Giant Buddha – one of the ancient Buddha statues in the world, located in China’s Sichuan province. This masterpiece carved into the rock for centuries held the first place in the ranking of the highest sculptures. The height of the monument 71 meters.
In this sculpture is truly gigantic body. For example, the finger length of 8 meters and a span of shoulders – nearly 30 meters. Carved at the junction of three rivers Chinese statue is very popular among tourists.
The initiative to erect a monument to the deity belongs to a monk called Hai Tong. During construction workers threw large pieces of rock into the river. As a result, rough river was defeated. Not the last role in the construction of the Buddha – has been assigned to Sichuan rulers.
Until the 17th century the Buddha’s body was covered 13-storey pavilion. Entrance to the park today paid, but that does not stop many tourists. Around the giant statues always crowded. In a single architectural ensemble as pagodas and temples are included in addition to the statue and the park.
To get to Lash can be from Chengdu 2.5 hours by bus or taxi. Prior to Chengdu, in turn, from Beijing fly planes. For Big Buddha on the river Min swim tourist boats.
Potala Palace – the highest ancient castle in the world; a great Buddhist temple complex in China, the former residence of the Dalai Lama. It located in the district of Tibet in Lhasa. Today it is very visited museum tourists. The Palace is also popular among the Buddhist pilgrims. It has a great historical and religious significance.
Geographically attraction is located on the top of a hill in the middle of Marpa Pu Lhasa Valley, why is even more monumental. Thus, the total height of over 3500 meters, and the area of the entire complex – 360 thousand square meters.
The first building in this area appeared in the 7th century on the initiative of the Tibetan King Songtsen Gampo. Over time, it has expanded the ownership and created a protective fortification. In the 8th century, all wooden buildings were destroyed by fire. However, preserved cave Chogyal Drupuk in which the king liked to meditate.
Its present appearance of the Potala Palace, acquired in the 17th century during the time of the Dalai Lama V. The construction of grand buildings were involved in the best masters of Tibet. More than 8,000 employees worked on the project. Its name owes legendary landmark Mount Potala.
Many pilgrims consider it their duty to pass an honorary lap around the palace hill. This ritual is called the crust. For prayer and service, mainly used by the Red Palace and White. In the latter until 1959 he lived and worked for the Dalai Lama, who from the beginning of the Tibetan uprising moved to India.
China Attractions. Shaolin Monastery – a Buddhist monastery in the mountains of Sun, China, founded in the late 5th century monk named Batou with the support of the governor Xiao Wen Ti. Located in Henan province and is famous as the birthplace of ancient Chinese martial arts.
This monastery has seen the emergence and establishment of Buddhism in China. Through the efforts of Bato new religious movement gained rapid spread. His teachings continued notorious Indian monk Bodhidharma. The construction site was chosen not by chance, as the Songshan Mountain was like a lotus. And this flower is known, has a special value for Buddhists.
Externally, the monastery is a fine example of the last Qing dynasty. For centuries, the image of the construction was repeatedly changed, as evidenced by preserved from the era of the Ming Dynasty murals. However, in the second half of the 20th century, with the advent of the tourist center, the monastery was a global restoration.
Today, as then, many people with a backpack come to Shaolin in search of spiritual harmony. As the Zen Buddhist saying: “Shaolin Temple is located where you are.”
Entrance to the monastery passes through the southern or the so-called “Mountain Gate”. The slope of the mountain is so steep that each successive courtyard is at a new level, like a ladder. In the first courtyard sculpture presented two hundred monks, by which one can learn a lot about the history of the area.
In 1982 the monastery was famous throughout the world after the release of the movie “Shaolin Temple” with Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan in the lead roles. During this period he began to appear around the business school of kung fu. Geographically Buddhist shrine located in the suburb of Dengfeng, where buses run regularly.
Terracotta Army – a huge complex in China, consisting of many thousands of clay, more precisely terracotta warriors. It’s a miracle, not knowing analogues. The silent army of about 8,100 soldiers in human growth and their horses was discovered around the city of Xi’an, near the mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang. In fact, this entire army of clay soldiers were buried with the Emperor.
Emperor Qin Shi Huang lived and ruled in the III century BC He went down in history as the ruler who founded the most powerful dynasty that continued to rule for ten thousand generations. Terracotta Army buried with the Emperor, was meant to protect his peace even after death. The amazing thing is that each soldier a unique look, everyone has his facial expression. Presumably the construction of the complex took about 38 years and it took more than 700 thousand workers.
The first soldiers were discovered in the 1970s. at the time when the locals drilled artesian well. Since excavations were amplified in 3 stages. To date, we found a thousand soldiers, more than 100 horses and chariots. The material for the construction of part of the army was taken from Mount Lishan. In addition to the warriors were buried with the ruler of the people around him during his life and tons of jewelery.
To get to the attractions of the capital will not be difficult. From Beijing to Xi’an sent planes (2 hours on the road) and the high-speed train (6 hours on the road). Before terracotta army museum regularly sent to the bus number 306 from the Xi’an Railway Station Square.